Department of Medical Toxicology

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Faculty & Staff

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Michelle Ruha, MD, FACMT

Professor of Emergency Medicine and Internal Medicine
Chair, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner - University Medical Center Phoenix
Chief, Section of Addiction Medicine (Department of Medical Toxicology), Banner - University Medical Center Phoenix

Board Certifications Emergency Medicine
Medical Toxicology
Addiction Medicine
Fellowship Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center (Phoenix, AZ)
Residency Morristown Memorial Hospital (Morristown, NJ)

Recent Publications

Peer-Reviewed Research Articles

  1. Spyres MB, Padilla GK, Gerkin RD(1)(2), et al.Late hemotoxicity following North American rattlesnake envenomation treated with crotalidae immune F(ab')(2) (equine) antivenom and crotalidae immune polyvalent Fab (ovine) antivenom reported to the North American Snakebite Sub-registry. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022 Mar 9:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2022.2042550.
  2. Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, Canning J, Spyres MB, Curry SC. Early Experience with Crotalidae Immune F(ab')(2) Antivenom to Treat Arizona Rattlesnake Envenomations. J Med Toxicol. 2021; Oct 19. doi: 10.1007/s13181-021-00859-y.
  3. Greene S, Ruha AM, Campleman S, et al. Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Management of Texas Coral Snake (Micrurus tener) Envenomations Reported to the North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. 2020 Aug 14. doi: 10.1007/s13181-020-00806-3.
  4. Levine M, Ruha AM, Wolk B, Caravati M, Brent J, Campleman S, Wax P; ToxIC North American Snakebite Study Group. When It Comes to Snakebites, Kids Are Little Adults: a Comparison of Adults and Children with Rattlesnake Bites. J Med Toxicol. 2020 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s13181-020-00776-6. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Offerman S, Gosen J, Thomas SH, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM, Levine M.. Buproprion associated seizures following acute overdose: who develops late seizures. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2020 Mar 26:1-7. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2020.1742919. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Domanski K, Kleinschmidt KC, Greene S, Ruha AM, et al. Cottonmouth snake bites reported to the ToxIC North American snakebite registry 2013-2017. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019 Jun 13:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2019.1627367.
  7. Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM, O'Connor AD, Kang AM, Wilkins DG, Jaeschke H, Wilhelms K, Gerkin RD, Acetaminophen Adduct Study Group. The Relationship Between Circulating Acetaminophen-Protein Adduct Concentrations and Alanine Aminotransferase Activities in Patients With and Without Acetaminophen Overdose and Toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2019 Apr 12. doi: 10.1007/s13181-019-00705-2. [Epub ahead of print]
  8. Kleinschmidt K, Ruha AM, Campleman S, Brent J, Wax P. Acute adverse events associated with the administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom within the North American Snakebite Registry. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Apr 24:1-6. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1464175. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Spyres MB, Skolnik A, Moore E, et al. Comparison of antivenom dosing strategies for rattlesnake envenomation. Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar 7. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003079.
  10. Heise CW, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et al. Clinical predictors of tissue necrosis following rattlesnake envenomation. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;1-4. doi:10.1080/15563650.2017.1371311. [Epub ahead of print]
  11. O'Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha MR. Severe bark scorpion envenomation in adults. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 28:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1353095. [Epub ahead of print]
  12. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Kleinschmidt K, Vohra R, Smith E, Padilla-Jones A. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of snakebite in the elderly: a ToxIC database study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 13:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1342829. [Epub ahead of print]
  13. Coorg V, Levitan RD, Gerkin RD, et al. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes Associated with Different Treatment Modalities for Pediatric Bark Scorpion Envenomation. J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13(1):66-70. doi:10.1007/s13181-016-0575-3.
  14. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Seifert S, et al (2016). Occupational Snake Bites: a Prospective Case Series of Patients Reported to the ToxIC North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. Dec;12(4):365-369.
  15. Lasoff DR, Ruha AM, Curry SC, Koh C, Clark RF (2016). A new F(ab')(2) antivenom for the treatment of crotaline envenomation in children. Am J Emerg Med. Oct;34(10):2003-2006. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.07.061.
  16. Farrugia LA, Rhyee SH, Campleman SL, et al (2016). The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2015 Experience. J Med Toxicol. Sep;12(3):224-47. doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0580-6.
  17. Wong A, Vohra R, Ruha AM, et al (2015). The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project. J Med Toxicol. Sep;11(3):295-300. doi: 10.1007/s13181-015-0479-7.
  18. French R, Brooks D, Ruha AM, et al (2015). Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) envenomation: Descriptive analysis of calls to United States Poison Centers with focus on Arizona cases. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Jan;53(1):60-70. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.988791

Case Reports

  1. Graff J, Thompson MG, Berriochoa Z, Kuhn B, Ruha AM, Lipinski C. Chloroquine Ingestion to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Report of Two Cases. Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med. 2021 May;5(2):234-238. doi: 10.5811/cpcem.2021.3.51329.
  2. Heise CW, Cunningham C, Ruha AM, O'Connor AD. One Bite, Two Patients: Disparate Clinical Courses Following Simultaneous Crotalus oreganus abyssus Envenomation. Wilderness Environ Med. 2020 Aug 18:S1080-6032(20)30106-X. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2020.05.004.
  3. Moore EC, Porter LM, Ruha AM. Rattlesnake venom-induced recurrent coagulopathy in first trimester pregnant women - Two Cases. Toxicon. 2019 Mar 14. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.03.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Book Chapters

  1. Ruha AM. Spider Bites and Scorpion Stings, in Conn's Current Therapy 2020. Eds. Kellerman and Rakel. Elsevier, 2020.
  2. Pizon AF and Ruha AM. Antidotes in Depth. Antivenom for North American Venomous Snakes (Crotaline and Elapid), in Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies, 11th ed. Eds. Nelson LS et al. 2019.
  3. Ruha AM and Pizon AF. Native (US) Venomous Snakes and Lizards, in Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies, 11th ed. Eds. Nelson LS et al. 2019.
  4. Ruha AM. North American Scorpion Envenomations, in Toxinology. Eds. Gopalakrishnakone P, et al. Springer; 2017. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-6288-6_73-1
  5. Levine MD and Ruha AM. North American scorpion envenomations. In: Brent J, Burkhart K, Dargan P, et al, eds. Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd ed. Cham, Springer International Publishing; 2017.
  6. Ruha AM. North American rattlesnake bites. In: Brent J, Burkhart K, Dargan P, et al, eds. Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd ed. Cham, Springer International Publishing; 2017.