Department of Medical Toxicology

Return to faculty & staff listing

Faculty & Staff



MR Photo

Michelle Ruha, MD, FACMT

Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine
Vice Chair, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner - University Medical Center Phoenix
Chief, Section of Addiction Medicine (Department of Medical Toxicology), Banner - University Medical Center Phoenix


Board Certifications Emergency Medicine
Medical Toxicology
Fellowship Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center (Phoenix, AZ)
Residency Morristown Memorial Hospital (Morristown, NJ)

Recent Publications

Peer-Reviewed Research Articles

  1. Kleinschmidt K, Ruha AM, Campleman S, Brent J, Wax P. Acute adverse events associated with the administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom within the North American Snakebite Registry. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Apr 24:1-6. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1464175. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Spyres MB, Skolnik A, Moore E, et al. Comparison of antivenom dosing strategies for rattlesnake envenomation. Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar 7. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003079.
  3. Heise CW, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et al. Clinical predictors of tissue necrosis following rattlesnake envenomation. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;1-4. doi:10.1080/15563650.2017.1371311. [Epub ahead of print]
  4. O'Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha MR. Severe bark scorpion envenomation in adults. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 28:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1353095. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Kleinschmidt K, Vohra R, Smith E, Padilla-Jones A. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of snakebite in the elderly: a ToxIC database study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 13:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1342829. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Coorg V, Levitan RD, Gerkin RD, et al. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes Associated with Different Treatment Modalities for Pediatric Bark Scorpion Envenomation. J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13(1):66-70. doi:10.1007/s13181-016-0575-3.
  7. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Seifert S, et al (2016). Occupational Snake Bites: a Prospective Case Series of Patients Reported to the ToxIC North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. Dec;12(4):365-369.
  8. Lasoff DR, Ruha AM, Curry SC, Koh C, Clark RF (2016). A new F(ab')(2) antivenom for the treatment of crotaline envenomation in children. Am J Emerg Med. Oct;34(10):2003-2006. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.07.061.
  9. Farrugia LA, Rhyee SH, Campleman SL, et al (2016). The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2015 Experience. J Med Toxicol. Sep;12(3):224-47. doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0580-6.
  10. Wong A, Vohra R, Ruha AM, et al (2015). The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project. J Med Toxicol. Sep;11(3):295-300. doi: 10.1007/s13181-015-0479-7.
  11. French R, Brooks D, Ruha AM, et al (2015). Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) envenomation: Descriptive analysis of calls to United States Poison Centers with focus on Arizona cases. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Jan;53(1):60-70. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.988791
  12. Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, O’Connor AD, et al (2014). Prolonged acetaminophen-protein adduct elimination during renal failure, lack of adduct removal by hemodiafiltration, and urinary adduct concentrations after acetaminophen overdose. J Med Toxicol. Doi: 10.1007/s13181-014-0431-2
  13. Levine M, Pizon AF, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM (2014). Warfarin overdose: a 25-year experience. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Jun;10(2):156-64. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0378-8.
  14. Levine M, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et al (2014). Bleeding following rattlesnake envenomation in patients with preenvenomation use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications. Acad Emerg Med. Mar;21(3):301-7. doi: 10.1111/acem.12333.
  15. Levine M, Skolnik AB, Ruha AM, et al (2014). Complications following antidotal use of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy. J Med Toxicol. Mar;10(1):10-4. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0356-1.
  16. Boyer L, Degan J, Ruha AM, et al (2013). Safety of intravenous equine F(ab')2: insights following clinical trials involving 1534 recipients of scorpion antivenom. Toxicon. Dec 15;76:386-93. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.07.017.
  17. Levine M, Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM (2013). Critical care management of verapamil and diltiazem overdose with a focus on vasopressors: a 25-year experience at a single center. Ann Emerg Med. Sep;62(3):252-8. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.03.018.
  18. Levine M, Froberg B, Ruha AM, et al (2013). Assessing the toxicity and associated costs among pediatric patients admitted with unintentional poisonings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs in the United States. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Mar;51(3):147-50. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2013.772623.
  19. Levine M, Mihalic J, Ruha AM, et al (2013). Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products. J Med Toxicol. Mar;9(1):21-4. doi: 10.1007/s13181-012-0231-5.
  20. Cohen JP, Ruha AM, Curry SC, et al (2013). Plasma and urine dimercaptopropanesulfonate concentrations after dermal application of transdermal DMPS (TD-DMPS). J Med Toxicol. Mar;9(1):9-15. doi: 10.1007/s13181-012-0272-9.

Case Reports

  1. Bosak AR, Ruha AM, Graeme KA (2014). A case of neurotoxicity following envenomation by the Sidewinder rattlesnake, Crotalus cerastes. J Med Toxicol. Jun;10(2):229-31. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0373-0.
  2. Kopec KT, Brent J, Banner W, et al (2014). Management of cardiac dysrhythmias following hydrocarbon abuse: clinical toxicology teaching case from NACCT acute and intensive care symposium. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Feb;52(2):141-5. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.882001.

Review Articles

  1. Ruha AM, Levine M (2014). Central nervous system toxicity. Emerg Med Clin North Am. Feb;32(1):205-21. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2013.09.004.
  2. Ruha AM. Recommendations for provoked challenge urine testing (2013). J Med Toxicol. Dec;9(4):318-25. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0350-7.

Book Chapters

  1. Levine MD and Ruha AM. North American scorpion envenomations. In: Brent J, Burkhart K, Dargan P, et al, eds. Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd ed. Cham, Springer International Publishing; 2017.
  2. Ruha AM. North American rattlesnake bites. In: Brent J, Burkhart K, Dargan P, et al, eds. Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd ed. Cham, Springer International Publishing; 2017.
  3. Ruha AM and Pizon A. Native (US) Venomous Snakes and Lizards. In: Nelson LS et al eds. GoldFrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2013.
  4. Pizon A and Ruha AM. Antidotes in Depth. Antivenom: Snakes (Native (US) Venomous (Crotaline and Elapid)). In: Nelson LS et al eds. GoldFrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2013.