Department of Medical Toxicology

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Michelle Ruha, MD, FACMT

Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine
Vice Chair, Department of Medical Toxicology, Banner - University Medical Center Phoenix


Board Certifications Emergency Medicine
Medical Toxicology
Fellowship Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center (Phoenix, AZ)
Residency Morristown Memorial Hospital (Morristown, NJ)

Recent Publications

Peer-Reviewed Research Articles

  1. Heise CW, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et al. Clinical predictors of tissue necrosis following rattlesnake envenomation. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;1-4. doi:10.1080/15563650.2017.1371311. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. O'Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha MR. Severe bark scorpion envenomation in adults. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 28:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1353095. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Kleinschmidt K, Vohra R, Smith E, Padilla-Jones A. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of snakebite in the elderly: a ToxIC database study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 13:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1342829. [Epub ahead of print]
  4. Coorg V, Levitan RD, Gerkin RD, et al. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes Associated with Different Treatment Modalities for Pediatric Bark Scorpion Envenomation. J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13(1):66-70. doi:10.1007/s13181-016-0575-3.
  5. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Seifert S, et al (2016). Occupational Snake Bites: a Prospective Case Series of Patients Reported to the ToxIC North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. Dec;12(4):365-369.
  6. Lasoff DR, Ruha AM, Curry SC, Koh C, Clark RF (2016). A new F(ab')(2) antivenom for the treatment of crotaline envenomation in children. Am J Emerg Med. Oct;34(10):2003-2006. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.07.061.
  7. Farrugia LA, Rhyee SH, Campleman SL, et al (2016). The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2015 Experience. J Med Toxicol. Sep;12(3):224-47. doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0580-6.
  8. Wong A, Vohra R, Ruha AM, et al (2015). The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project. J Med Toxicol. Sep;11(3):295-300. doi: 10.1007/s13181-015-0479-7.
  9. French R, Brooks D, Ruha AM, et al (2015). Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) envenomation: Descriptive analysis of calls to United States Poison Centers with focus on Arizona cases. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Jan;53(1):60-70. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.988791
  10. Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, O’Connor AD, et al (2014). Prolonged acetaminophen-protein adduct elimination during renal failure, lack of adduct removal by hemodiafiltration, and urinary adduct concentrations after acetaminophen overdose. J Med Toxicol. Doi: 10.1007/s13181-014-0431-2
  11. Levine M, Pizon AF, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM (2014). Warfarin overdose: a 25-year experience. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Jun;10(2):156-64. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0378-8.
  12. Levine M, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et al (2014). Bleeding following rattlesnake envenomation in patients with preenvenomation use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications. Acad Emerg Med. Mar;21(3):301-7. doi: 10.1111/acem.12333.
  13. Levine M, Skolnik AB, Ruha AM, et al (2014). Complications following antidotal use of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy. J Med Toxicol. Mar;10(1):10-4. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0356-1.
  14. Boyer L, Degan J, Ruha AM, et al (2013). Safety of intravenous equine F(ab')2: insights following clinical trials involving 1534 recipients of scorpion antivenom. Toxicon. Dec 15;76:386-93. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.07.017.
  15. Levine M, Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM (2013). Critical care management of verapamil and diltiazem overdose with a focus on vasopressors: a 25-year experience at a single center. Ann Emerg Med. Sep;62(3):252-8. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.03.018.
  16. Levine M, Froberg B, Ruha AM, et al (2013). Assessing the toxicity and associated costs among pediatric patients admitted with unintentional poisonings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs in the United States. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Mar;51(3):147-50. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2013.772623.
  17. Levine M, Mihalic J, Ruha AM, et al (2013). Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products. J Med Toxicol. Mar;9(1):21-4. doi: 10.1007/s13181-012-0231-5.
  18. Cohen JP, Ruha AM, Curry SC, et al (2013). Plasma and urine dimercaptopropanesulfonate concentrations after dermal application of transdermal DMPS (TD-DMPS). J Med Toxicol. Mar;9(1):9-15. doi: 10.1007/s13181-012-0272-9.
  19. O'Connor AD and Ruha AM (2012). Clinical Course of Bark Scorpion Envenomation Managed Without Antivenom. J Med Toxicol. 8(3): 258-62.
  20. Levine M, LoVecchio F, Ruha AM, et al (2012). Influence of drug use on morbidity and mortality in heatstroke. J Med Toxicol. 2012 Sep;8(3):252-7. doi: 10.1007/s13181-012-0222-6.
  21. Levine M, Curry SC, Ruha AM, et al (2012). Ethylene glycol elimination kinetics and outcomes in patients managed without hemodialysis. Ann Emerg Med. Jun;59(6):527-31. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2011.12.001.

Case Reports

  1. Bosak AR, Ruha AM, Graeme KA (2014). A case of neurotoxicity following envenomation by the Sidewinder rattlesnake, Crotalus cerastes. J Med Toxicol. Jun;10(2):229-31. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0373-0.
  2. Kopec KT, Brent J, Banner W, et al (2014). Management of cardiac dysrhythmias following hydrocarbon abuse: clinical toxicology teaching case from NACCT acute and intensive care symposium. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Feb;52(2):141-5. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.882001.

Review Articles

  1. Ruha AM, Levine M (2014). Central nervous system toxicity. Emerg Med Clin North Am. Feb;32(1):205-21. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2013.09.004.
  2. Ruha AM. Recommendations for provoked challenge urine testing (2013). J Med Toxicol. Dec;9(4):318-25. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0350-7.
  3. Levine M, Ruha AM (2012). Overdose of atypical antipsychotics: clinical presentation, mechanisms of toxicity and management. CNS Drugs. Jul 1;26(7):601-11. doi: 10.2165/11631640-000000000-00000.
  4. Levine M, Ruha AM, Goldstein JN (2012). Can asymptomatic patients with a supratherapeutic international normalized ratio be safely treated as outpatients? Ann Emerg Med. Apr;59(4):318-20. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2011.04.023.

Book Chapters

  1. Levine MD and Ruha AM. North American scorpion envenomations. In: Brent J, Burkhart K, Dargan P, et al, eds. Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd ed. Cham, Springer International Publishing; 2017.
  2. Ruha AM. North American rattlesnake bites. In: Brent J, Burkhart K, Dargan P, et al, eds. Critical Care Toxicology, 2nd ed. Cham, Springer International Publishing; 2017.
  3. Ruha AM and Pizon A. Native (US) Venomous Snakes and Lizards. In: Nelson LS et al eds. GoldFrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2013.
  4. Pizon A and Ruha AM. Antidotes in Depth. Antivenom: Snakes (Native (US) Venomous (Crotaline and Elapid)). In: Nelson LS et al eds. GoldFrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2013.