Department of Medical Toxicology


Recent Peer-Reviewed Publications (Previous 5 Years)


  1. Spyres MB, Farrugia LA, Kang AM, Calello DP, Campleman SL, Pizon A, Wiegand T, Kao L, Riley B, Li S, Wax PM, Brent J, Toxicology Investigators Consortium Study Group. The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2018 Annual Report. J Med Toxicol. 2019. In press
  2. Kang AM and Fisher ES. Thromboelastography with Platelet Studies (TEG® with PlateletMapping®) After Rattlesnake Envenomation in the Southwestern United States Demonstrates Inhibition of ADP-Induced Platelet Activation As Well As Clot Lysis. J Med Toxicol.. 2019. doi:10.1007/s13181-019-00729-8.
  3. Fisher ES and Curry SC. Evaluation and treatment of acetaminophen toxicity. Adv Pharmacol. 2019;85:263-272. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2018.12.004
  4. Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM, O'Connor AD, Kang AM, Wilkins DG, Jaeschke H, Wilhelms K, Gerkin RD, Acetaminophen Adduct Study Group. The Relationship Between Circulating Acetaminophen-Protein Adduct Concentrations and Alanine Aminotransferase Activities in Patients With and Without Acetaminophen Overdose and Toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2019 Apr 12. doi: 10.1007/s13181-019-00705-2. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Moore EC, Porter LM, Ruha AM. Rattlesnake venom-induced recurrent coagulopathy in first trimester pregnant women - Two Cases. Toxicon. 2019 Mar 14. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.03.006. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Quan D, LoVecchio F, Bhattarai B, Flores M, Frechette A, Sinha M. Comparing clinical outcomes between two scorpion antivenom dosing strategies in children. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019 Feb 7:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1551546. [Epub ahead of print]


  1. Bennett BK, Boesen KJ, Welch SA, Kang AM. Study of factors contributing to scorpion envenomation in Arizona. J Med Toxicol. 2018; [Epub ahead of print]. Doi: 10.1007/s13181-018-0690-4.
  2. Gummin DD, Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE, Osterthaler KM, Banner W. 2017 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 35th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Dec 21:1-203. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1533727. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Gallo T, Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, Heise CW, Ramos KS, Woosley RL, Raschke RA. A Computerized Scoring System to Improve Assessment of Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia Risk. J Thromb Haemost. 2018 Dec 14. doi: 10.1111/jth.14359. [Epub ahead of print]
  4. Levine M, Pizon A, Beuhler M, Cantrell FL, LoVecchio F, Spyres M, Skolnik AB, Brooks DE. Exploratory Ingestions of Novel Anticoagulants and Antiplatelets: What Is the Risk? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2018 Nov 19. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001616.
  5. Duan L, Ramachandran A, Akakpo JY, Weemhoff JL, Curry SC, Jaeschke H. Role of extracellular vesicles in release of protein adducts after acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice and humans. Toxicol Lett. 2018 Nov 14. pii: S0378-4274(18)32002-2. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.005.
  6. Kang AM. Substances involved in suicidal poisonings in the United States. Suicide Life Threat Behav. In press.
  7. Kleinschmidt K, Ruha AM, Campleman S, Brent J, Wax P. Acute adverse events associated with the administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom within the North American Snakebite Registry. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Apr 24:1-6. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2018.1464175. [Epub ahead of print]
  8. Spyres MB, Skolnik A, Moore E, et al. Comparison of antivenom dosing strategies for rattlesnake envenomation. Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar 7. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003079.
  9. Levine M, Offerman S, Vohra R, et al. Assessing the effect of a medical toxicologist in the care of rattlesnake envenomated patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2018 Mar 2. doi: 10.1111/acem.13401. [Epub ahead of print]
  10. Enfield B, Brooks DE, Welch S, et al. Human plant exposures reported to a regional (Southwestern) poison control center over 8 years. J Med Toxicol. 2018.


  1. Raschke RA, Groves RH, Khurana HS, et al. A quality improvement project to improve the Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) sepsis bundle compliance rate in a large healthcare system. BMJ Open Qual. 2017 Oct 21;6(2):e000080. doi: 10.1136/bmjoq-2017-000080
  2. Gummin DD, Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE, et al. 2016 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 34th Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;55(10):1072-252.
  3. Kang AM and Brooks DE. Geographic distribution of scorpion exposures in the United States, 2010-2015. Am J Public Health. 2017; 107(12):e1-e6. Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.304094.
  4. Heise CW, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et al. Clinical predictors of tissue necrosis following rattlesnake envenomation. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;1-4. doi:10.1080/15563650.2017.1371311. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Farrugia LA, Rhyee SH, Calello DP, et al. The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2016 Experience. J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13:203-26. doi: 10.1007/s13181-017-0627-3.
  6. O'Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha MR. Severe bark scorpion envenomation in adults. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 28:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1353095. [Epub ahead of print]
  7. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Kleinschmidt K, Vohra R, Smith E, Padilla-Jones A. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of snakebite in the elderly: a ToxIC database study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jul 13:1-5. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1342829. [Epub ahead of print]
  8. Raschke RA, Gallo T, Curry SC, et al. Clinical effectiveness of a Bayesian algorithm for the diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. J Thromb Haemost. 2017; 15(8):1640-5. doi: 10.1111/jth.13758
  9. Heise CW, Malashock H, Brooks DE. A review of vilazodone exposures with focus on serotonin syndrome effects. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017:1. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1332369.
  10. Kang AM and Brooks DE. Nationwide scorpion exposures reported to US poison control centers from 2005 to 2015. J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13(2):158-65. Doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0594-0.
  11. Coorg V, Levitan RD, Gerkin RD, et al. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes Associated with Different Treatment Modalities for Pediatric Bark Scorpion Envenomation. J Med Toxicol. 2017; 13(1):66-70. doi:10.1007/s13181-016-0575-3.
  12. Weemhoff JL, Woolbright BL, Jenkins RE, et al. Plasma biomarkers to study mechanisms of liver injury in patients with hypoxic hepatitis. Liver Int. 2017; 37:377-384. doi:10.1111/liv.13202.


  1. Spyres MB, Ruha AM, Seifert S, et al (2016). Occupational Snake Bites: a Prospective Case Series of Patients Reported to the ToxIC North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. Dec;12(4):365-369.
  2. Heise CW and Brooks DE (2016). Ayahuasca Exposure: Descriptive Analysis of Calls to US Poison Control Centers from 2005 to 2015. J Med Toxicol. 1-4. doi:10.1007/s13181-016-0593-1.
  3. Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE et al. Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 33rd Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016 Dec;54(10):924-1109
  4. Lasoff DR, Ruha AM, Curry SC, Koh C, Clark RF (2016). A new F(ab')(2) antivenom for the treatment of crotaline envenomation in children. Am J Emerg Med. Oct;34(10):2003-2006. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.07.061.
  5. Heise CW, Skolnik AB, Raschke RA, et al. Two Cases of Refractory Cardiogenic Shock Secondary to Bupropion Successfully Treated with Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. J Med Toxicol. 2016 Sep;12(3):301-4. doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0539-7.
  6. Farrugia LA, Rhyee SH, Campleman SL, et al (2016). The Toxicology Investigators Consortium Case Registry-the 2015 Experience. J Med Toxicol. Sep;12(3):224-47. doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0580-6.
  7. Thomas KC, Wilkins DG, Curry SC, et al. Detection of Acetaminophen-Protein Adducts in Decedents with Suspected Opioid-Acetaminophen Combination Product Overdose. J Forensic Sci. 2016;61:1301-6. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.13169.
  8. Levine M, O'Connor AD, Padilla-Jones A and Gerkin RD. Comparison of prothrombin time and aspartate aminotransferase in predicting hepatotoxicity after acetaminophen overdose. J Med Toxicol. 2016;12:100-6. doi:10.1007/s13181-015-0504-x.
  9. Spyres MB, Oakley E, Graeme KA. Ultrasound to evaluate effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Intern Emerg Med. 2016 Jul 28.
  10. Kang AM and Brooks DE. US poison control center calls for infants 6 months of age and younger. Pediatrics. 2016; 137(2): e20151865. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1865.


  1. Otaluka O, Corrado R, Brooks DE, Nelson DB (2015). A survey of poison center knowledge and utilization among urban and rural residents in Arizona. Toxicology Reports. 2:203-204.
  2. Bosak A, Brooks DE, Welch S, Padilla-Jones A, Gerkin RD (2015). A retrospective review of 911 calls to a regional poison control center. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 4(4):546-550.
  3. Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Brooks DE, McMillan N, Schauben JL (2015). 2014 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 32nd annual report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 53(10):962-1147.
  4. Wong A, Vohra R, Ruha AM, et al (2015). The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project. J Med Toxicol. Sep;11(3):295-300. doi: 10.1007/s13181-015-0479-7.
  5. Curry SC, Padilla-Jones A, O'Connor AD, et al. Prolonged Acetaminophen-Protein Adduct Elimination During Renal Failure, Lack of Adduct Removal by Hemodiafiltration, and Urinary Adduct Concentrations After Acetaminophen Overdose. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Jun;11(2):169-78. doi: 10.1007/s13181-014-0431-2.
  6. LoVecchio F and Heise CW (2015). Accidental pediatric ingestions of medical marijuana: a 4-year poison center experience. Am J Emerg Med. Jun;33(6):844-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2015.03.030.
  7. LoVecchio F and Zoph O (2015). Incidence of electronic cigarette exposures in children skyrockets in Arizona. Am J Emerg Med. Jun;33(6):834-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2015.02.036.
  8. Cook SF, King AD, Chang Y, et al. Quantification of a biomarker of acetaminophen protein adducts in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry: clinical and animal model applications. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015 Mar 15;985:131-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2015.01.028.
  9. Heise CW, Beutler D, Bosak A, et al. Massive Atenolol, Lisinopril, and Chlorthalidone Overdose Treated with Endoscopic Decontamination,Hemodialysis, Impella Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Device, and ECMO. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Mar;11(1):110-4. doi: 10.1007/s13181-014-0419-y.
  10. Curry SC, Brooks DE, Skolnik AB, et al. Effect of a medical toxicology admitting service on length of stay, cost, and mortality among inpatients discharged with poisoning-related diagnoses. J Med Toxicol. 2015 Mar;11(1):65-72. doi: 10.1007/s13181-014-0418-z.
  11. French R, Brooks DE, Ruha AM, et al (2015). Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) envenomation: Descriptive analysis of calls to United States Poison Centers with focus on Arizona cases. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Jan;53(1):60-70. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.988791


  1. Woolbright BL, McGill MR, Staggs VS, et al. Glycodeoxycholic acid levels as prognostic biomarker in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure patients. Toxicol Sci. 2014 Dec;142(2):436-44. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu195.
  2. Thomas KC, Wilkins DG, Curry SC, et al. Detection of Acetaminophen-Protein Adducts in Decedents with Suspected Opioid-Acetaminophen Combination Product Overdose. J Forensic Sci. 2016 Sep;61(5):1301-6. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.13169.
  3. Bosak AR, Graeme KA, Evans MD. Hemodialysis treatment of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia associated with chronic lithium toxicity. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Sep;10(3):303-6. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0366-z.
  4. Ward J, Kanchagar C, Veksler-Lublinsky I, et al. Circulating microRNA profiles in human patients with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity or ischemic hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 19;111(33):12169-74. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412608111.
  5. Weemhoff JL, Woolbright BL, Jenkins RE, et al. Plasma biomarkers to study mechanisms of liver injury in patients with hypoxic hepatitis. Liver Int. 2016 Jul 18. doi: 10.1111/liv.13202.
  6. Bosak AR, Ruha AM, Graeme KA. A case of neurotoxicity following envenomation by the Sidewinder rattlesnake, Crotalus cerastes. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Jun;10(2):229-31. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0373-0.
  7. Graeme KA. Mycetism: a review of the recent literature. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Jun;10(2):173-89. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0355-2.
  8. Levine M, Pizon AF, Padilla-Jones A, Ruha AM (2014). Warfarin overdose: a 25-year experience. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Jun;10(2):156-64. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0378-8.
  9. McGill MR, Cao M, Svetlov A, et al. Argininosuccinate synthetase as a plasma biomarker of liver injury after acetaminophen overdose in rodents and humans. Biomarkers. 2014 May;19(3):222-30. doi: 10.3109/1354750X.2014.897757.
  10. Levine M, Ruha AM, Padilla-Jones A, et al (2014). Bleeding following rattlesnake envenomation in patients with preenvenomation use of antiplatelet or anticoagulant medications. Acad Emerg Med. Mar;21(3):301-7. doi: 10.1111/acem.12333.
  11. Levine M, Skolnik AB, Ruha AM, et al (2014). Complications following antidotal use of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy. J Med Toxicol. Mar;10(1):10-4. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0356-1.
  12. Kopec KT, Brent J, Banner W, et al (2014). Management of cardiac dysrhythmias following hydrocarbon abuse: clinical toxicology teaching case from NACCT acute and intensive care symposium. Clin Toxicol (Phila). Feb;52(2):141-5. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.882001.
  13. McGill MR, Li F, Sharpe MR, et al. Circulating acylcarnitines as biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction after acetaminophen overdose in mice and humans. Arch Toxicol. 2014 Feb;88(2):391-401. doi: 10.1007/s00204-013-1118-1.
  14. Ruha AM and Levine M (2014). Central nervous system toxicity. Emerg Med Clin North Am. Feb;32(1):205-21. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2013.09.004.